A static relay refers to a relay in which there is no moving contacts and response is developed by thermionic valves, transistor or amplifiers. ✓ Electromagnetic relays have fast operation and fast reset. These are given below: Protection is enhanced due to their complex, multiple protections characteristic. An electromagnetic relay is a switch that is turned on and off by a magnetic field. Mech. The moving parts are absent. The various advantages of static relays are: 1. the numerical relay is having very less tripping times compared to mechanical relays. Fundamental of electrical, Electrical machine theory, High voltage engineering theory, Electrical protection theory Electrical gadgets and power system theory. ✓ Requires periodic maintenance and testing unlike static relays. Advantages of Numerical relays 1. Present generation relays. Data History. ✓ slow operating times and reset can be possible. This necessitated providing adequate automatic protection for transformer against possible faults. 3. the numerical relay having system stored each fault records, types of fault, nature of fault, fault timing, fault present duration, etc.. The transistor circuits can perform functions like summation, integration, comparison etc. Present generation relays. Solid state relays come with a rather large and perhaps intimidating upfront price tag when compared to an electromechanical relay. The relay has less overloading capacity. However, it is not as robust as the Electromechanical Relay. Hence can be used in vessels ie, ships, aircrafts etc. No power is required from the switched circuit. It is bound by specific current/voltage characteristics. ✓ Used as auxiliary relays in the contact systems of protective relays schemes. There are many Advantages, Disadvantages and Application of Electromagnetic Relay which will be mentioned in this article. Over time, however, the solid state relay will gain the edge due to its main advantage: there are no moving parts. Introduction: The frame relay is used for data transmission at higher speed similar to ISDN. 1 relay can perform only 1 function. In static relays, the sensing is taken out by static circuits consisting of comparators, detectors, filters etc. In static relays, the measurement is performed by electronic/magnetic/optical or other components without mechanical motion. The magnetic field then uses for opening and closing the switch and for performing the mechanical operation. Some variants can work as low as 1.5V DC unlike Electromagnetic relay which requires at least 3V DC. A. Buchholz relay is a device which is used for the protection of transformer from its internal faults, it is a gas based relay. These relays suffer from the effects of age. It is a type of a magnetic switch which uses the magnet for creating a magnetic field. but numerical relay is having LCD to indicate the alarm and relay activation. Static relays were manufactured as semi conductor devices which incorporate transistors, ICs, capacitors, small micro processors etc. Disadvantages or demerits: High burden level instrument transformers are required (CTs and PTs of high burden is required for operating the electromagnetic relays compared to static relays) The directional feature is absent in electromagnetic relays Requires periodic maintenance and testing unlike static relays But for multi-functional protection, static relay proves economical. They are contrasted with electromechanical relay, which has moving parts for switching. Modern electrical protection relays are mainly micro processor based, but still electromagnetic relay holds its place. 2nd generation relays. Comparison between analog wattmeter and digital wattmeter. These relays suffer from the effects of age. A protective system is formed by static relays and electromechanical auxiliary relays. Compared to static relays, digital relays introduce A/D conversion of all measured analogue quantities and use a microprocessor to implement the protection algorithm. The term ‘static’ implies that the relay has no moving mechanical parts in it. When this operating current increases, coil energizes the electromagnet. When compared to other relays, electromechanical relays are relatively slow devices -- typical models can switch and settle in 5 to 15 ms. 2nd generation relays. For The Measurement Or Comparison Of Electrical Quantities. The Output Signal Is Turned Operated A Tripping Device Which May Be Electromagnetic … provided that static units accomplish the response. It will take much longer time to be replaced the all electromagnetic relays by micro processor based static relays. ✓ The directional feature is absent in electromagnetic relays. And the solid state relay with zero-crossing function can reduce the influence of external interference on SSR, and also reduce the interference signal generated by the solid-state relay itself. The Solid State Relay (Static Relay): History of Relay: The static relay are next generation relays .The Solid Static relays was first introduced in 1960’s. The need for electromagnetic compatibility is also a disadvantage of MP device, which can only be compared with EM device. When discussing the advantages and disadvantages of MP device, they often do this in comparison with electromechanical protection devices (EM device). Note: Last points are Disadvantages of static Relays. Introduction to Static Relays: Characteristic Functions of Protection Relay: Characteristic Functions of Protection Relay elements using different operating principles. A relay using combination of both static and electromagnetic units is also called a static relay. Static relays incorporate static components such as solid state devices, magnetic or electric circuits etc. Solid State Relay also known as Solid State Switch is an electronic device used for switching the load on and off when the external supply voltage is provided across the input terminals of the device. So, No problem of Arcing No needs to replace contacts. Both of the above factors [factors (5) and (6)] are the design features of the circuit and careful design of static relay circuitry can compensate for these limitations. One of the best features that a PLC system has over a traditional relay system is versatility with the programming and easy expandability. Compact Size Electromechanical Relay makes use of mechanical comparison devices, which cause the main reason for the bulky size of relays. The static relay is more costly as compared to the electromagnetic relay. Frame relay establishes connection between DTE and DCE using two modes. ✓ They can be used for both a.c.and d.c.systems for protection of a.c.and d.c. ✓ Electromagnetic relays operating speeds which has the ability to operate in milliseconds. Solid state relay or static relay is an electrical relay, in which the response is developed by electrical / magnetic / optical or other components without mechanical movement of components. Since the introduction of solid-state relays some decades ago, the debate over which is better, solid-state relays (SSRs) or electromechanical relays (EMRs), has gone on. In this relays transistors and IC’s been used : They use microprocessor. Moving contacts are present. The Static Network Is So Designed Them It Gives An Output Signal In The Tripping Direction Whenever A Threshold Conditions Reached. It is a type of a magnetic switch which uses the magnet for creating a magnetic field. In contrast, the solid state relay has good electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Similar advantages and disadvantages of Microprocessor Based relays. Further, the orientation of the electromechanical relay relative to the shock or vibration must be considered in designs where physical movement is expected. The static relay has low short-time overload capacity as compared to electromagnetic relays. Advantages of Numerical relays 1. whenever the rely is activate the flag also activated. Modern electrical protection relays are mainly micro processor based, but still electromagnetic relay holds its place. It is very easy to provide electrical isolation between the coil that creates the magnetic field and the switch contacts. Relay can be installed at any location and at any position. to obtain output instead of mechanical contacts. Within built software with predefined values: They use microprocessor. This operating speed may be too slow for some applications. Electromagnetic relays are those relays which are operated by electromagnetic action. • PVC-Permanent Virtual Circuit (Static like leased lines) • SVC-Switched Virtual Circuit (Dynamically established) The figure-1 depicts frame relay network which consists of Frame relay switches between DTEs and DCEs.Each connection is identified using uni… This relay has to be installed straight only and away from magnetic field. Hence, the Potential and the Current Transformers should have a higher capacity. When the operating current becomes large, the magnetic field produced by electromagnet is high such that this magnetic field pulls the armature or plunger making the trip circuit contacts to close. A relay output card on a PLC sends out one wire to the output device. The static relays have low short-time overload capacity compared with electromagnetic relays. Static Relays use solid state devices to process the input signals in analog form. ✓ High burden level instrument transformers are required such that CTs and PTs of high burden is required for operating the electromagnetic relays compared to static relays. SCR's or one Triac). Modern electrical protection relays are mainly micro processor based, but still electromagnetic relay holds its place. For integrated protection and monitoring systems programmable microprocessor controlled static relays are preferred. A numerical relay has got several advantages as compared to ordinary electromagnetic relays. Static Relays. No effect of Gravity on operation of static relay. It is more vulnerable to surges and spikes in the current which is switched on output side unlike EM relay. This page covers advantages and disadvantages of Frame Relay. 12. PLC has more advanced functions as compared to manual work (hardware relay-base). 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